Rabu, 20 Februari 2013

Muhammad Arifin Ilham &His Majelis Az Zikra


My old paper. Please forgive my English :) 

Presented at the Graduate Workshop on Piety and Pietization in Asia
Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore,
9-10 July 2007

Between Sufism and Piety:
The Case of Muhammad Arifin Ilham & His Majelis Az Zikra
By: Aang Abu Bakar Yusuf*

Conventional sufis and darwis/mystics usually express their spiritual piety and closeness to the God through living in misery, having only one or two clothes, practicing zuhud (ascetiscm), dominated by the low class and poor society, jobless and, to some extent, leaving the rationality. This what makes the Sufis then are accussed as the factor behind the backwardness of Muslims in the past.
However, recently Indonesian Muslims witness the rise of new sufi forms. As appeared in television and other mass medias, a large number of people who wear white shirts gather and cry together while performing dhikr and meditations. These practices are well-known as parts of sufism in Islamic tradition since the practices offer spiritual experiences and purification of the soul (tazkiyat an nafs) which are the heart of Islamic Mysticsm. Interestingly, people who perform this dhikr practices now come mostly not just from low class, yet also from the middle even the elites. They live in elite housing, luxurious appearance, having luxurious cars, and having professional jobs. As noted by Howell, what were previously considered as superstitious and exclusive practices in the past, now changes to be a way of modern life style to many Indonesian Muslim cosmopolitans.1
This paper will focus on discussing about Muhammad Arifin Ilham and his Majelis Az Zikra, in terms of its activities and formulas offered. Arifin’s dhikr movement also have been widely spread to all parts of Indonesia and followed by hundreds thousands of people. Arifin is also one of the leading neo-sufism figures in Indonesia in addition to Abdullah Gymnastiar, Haryono, Ary Ginanjar and so forth.

A Brief Biography of Muhammad Arifin Ilham
Muhammad Arifin Ilham was born in Banjarmasin South of Kalimantan on June 8, 1969. His father, Muhammad Ilham Marjuki, formerly was a bankir at an Indonesian national bank in South Kalimantan, while his mother, Nurhayati, is a housewife up to now. Arifin finished his elementary school in Banjarmasin, then he continued his junior and senior high schools in two great pesantrens in Jakarta; Darunnajah and Asy-Syafi’iyyah.
During his intellectual journeys in those pesantrens, Arifin also experienced and enjoyed spiritual guidance from his teachers. The spiritual guidance here doesn’t mean he received any ijazah or khirqah from those teachers likely in Sufis Orders, but it is more in the sense of moral and direct examples from his teachers in applying Islamic tenets. As Arifin admitted that he mainly amazed with two Ustadzs (teacher) in those pesantrens, namely Ustadz Irfan Amara Bittaqwa2 and Ustadz Asrori Muhtarom. Arifin views that both Ustadzs always practice to themseleves whatever they teach to their pupils, include to Arifin. They taught Arifin how to pray at nights, reciting Al Quran everyday, praying together at mosques, writing a daily diary what he does everyday (hisab harian) and many other deeds that Arifin keeps doing till now and become foundation within his Dhikr movement.
Unlike other pesantren graduates who usually continue their studies to State Institutes of Islamic Studies/Islamic Universities (IAIN/UIN), Arifin preferred to continue his formal education to National University of Jakarta majoring in International Relations. As Arifin narrated that the reason behind this choice was his ustadz’s advise in the pesantren that Muslims in the future should not be left in politics by the others (non Muslims), both local and global. Later he recognized the truth of his Ustadz’s advise after he interacts and views the local and global politics

"I do not shock anymore since I have already had the insight of what happens out there"3
Arifin was also well-known as an activist in his campus. He was among the leaders in Himpunan Mahasiswa Islam (HMI/ Association of Muslim’s University Student), Student Union and many other organizations, which later very beneficial for him in managing and organizing his Majelis Azzikra. While, outside the campus, eventhough his father was a bankir, Arifin funded his living cost and his college fee by doing some ‘blue collars works’ like being conductor on public transportation, selling foods, singing at bus terminal, breeding the sheeps and many other works that allowed by Islamic Sharia. Nowadays, whenever he acrosses some places where he was used to be there in the past, he proudly said to his companions who follow him in the same car

"I was there…I was there…singing….selling foods…and shouting to the bus passengers"…..4
In the sense of Dakwah and Tabligh, Arifin actually is not a new comer. Since he was in Kalimantan, he showed his interest and talent in adressing religious speeches before public. He also learned much how to deliver good speeches from some Guru and Ustadzs in his homeland from mosques to mosques. Likely other children in his village that time, he also liked to follow and to serve those Gurus by bringing their bags and sandals in order to get those Gurus’ barokah and prayers.
His speech and dakwah abilities grew sharply while he was still a student in both Pesantrens and university. His ability to deliver the speech enabled him to preach in some cities in Indonesia and Singapore when he was still 15 or 16 years old. At the same time he began to practice his Dhikr with a small number of his friends and followers that time.
After married with Wahyuniati Al Waly, who gave him three sons now, Arifin then lived in Depok, a small growing city beside Jakarta, until now. There he began to build Majelis Azzikra and tried to implement his “dreams” in proselytizing the piety and Islamic religious tenets to the public. In this place, Arifin uses Al Amru Bittaqwa mosque as the central of his dhikr and preaching activities, while he also builds a foundation that is named Al Amru Bittaqwa Foundation which focuses more on social matters such as education and business.

Dhikr in Arifin’s Perspective
Dhikr means repetition of the names of Allah and certain religious formula as means of demonstrating piety5 Theoretically, all Muslims can do dhikr alone simply just by reciting some commonly used verses from the Qur’an. However, in classical sufi tradition, reciting dhikr together should be led by a mursyid (teacher in a sufi order). This practice is believed as a communal worship and results many benefits to those who join this ritual. Among those benefits are gaining blessing and mercy from Allah, motivation to become pious persons, and keeping the hearts to remember Allah.6
For Arifin, Dhikr consists of dhikr lisan (by tongue), dhikr qalbu (by heart), dhikr aql (by viewing the natural phenomenon) and dhikr amal (taqwa). So begun from the heart, then followed by the mind, uttered by tongues and proved by good deeds in this world. Dhikr is also a proof of obidience to Allah. The more obidience some one is the more dhikr he does. The more faith the more dhikr……less faith less dhikr….no faith no dhikr….. Dhikr is also a panacea toward the whirl of life, mentally, materially and spiritually.7
The main purpose of dhikr is to be closed to Allah. Wherever and whenever he is. If someone has a habit to do dhikr, it is impossible for him to do sin, bad and immoral deeds. His heart will always tend to be good and obidience to Allah. In order to be closer and understand to Allah the Almighty in this world, people should do tazkiyat an nafs (purifying the soul) and the media to get that purification is the dhikr.8
The wordings of Arifin’s dhikr are taawudz (prayer to get away from evil) Basmallah (in the name of God), Al Fatihah (the introductory chapter of Al Quran), Ayat Kursi (a verse about God’s sovereignity), Al Insyirah (a chapter in Quran about opening heart), Al Zalzalah (a chapter about the end of the world), Al Ikhlash (a chapter about the unity of God) Al Falaq (a chapter about dawn time), An Nas (a chapter about human beings), Al Asma al Husna (the ninety nine names of Allah), shalawat (prayers to the prophet), Istighfar (repentance) and sujud syukur (kneeling to offer thanks).9
Interestingly, although he is a descendant of Syaikh Muhammad Arsyad Al Banjari,10 it does not make Arifin affiliate his dhikr practices with any tarekat or sufi orders. Even he does not want to make his dhikr method and formulas become rigid and should be followed as he does by his followers. That is why his dhikr methods become flexible and the prayers occassionally may change any time.

"I am afraid there will be thariqah Arifiniyyah in the future if I just employ a formula or method rigidly"11

As mentioned earlier that in some classical Sufis orders, it is found that there are a lot of conditions for people to join and perform dhikr, such as the obligation of membership, symbolic expressions and living in misery or zuhud (asceticsm). This obviously makes barriers for some modern, elite and well-educated people (i.e. middle class). They seem to seek formulas how to improve their piety & religiosity without leaving their identities and daily habits such as working and enjoying modern life style. Here, the formula offered by Muhammad Arifin Ilham seems to be proper for them.
Why do people perform Dhikr?
The question appears now, what are people’s motivation to perform the Dhikr led by Arifin?.12 For the case of Arifin Ilham, I see that there are at least three motives for people to perform dhikr, these are; psychological escape, seeking the comfort and economic interests for the following reasons. Firstly, they experience that joining Dhikr can result psychological, even physical healthy impact for themselves. They also feel that they get faith renewal, and piety recovery whenever they perform that dhikr together.
Then, it is about the taste of spirituality like crying and extasy of the God’s presence. People become addicted to perform dhikr because of that spiritual experience.13 Secondly, to join dhikr in Az Zikra is very simple, free and open for all, it means without membership and requirements as usually found in other sufis institution they can enjoy the rethorical power of Arifin that can make the materials of Islamic tenets become simple and easy to be understood. Thirdly, for a little number of the jamaah, performing dhikr is a kind of seeking the comfort. They are familiar with Islamic tenets, and used to perform dhikr for themselves and their communities. However, for them it is more ‘comfort’ if the dhikr can be performed together led by Arifin. Then, there is also economic interest among the jamaah, particularly for the vendors and businessmen who seek for the networks for their business. In some cases, the owners of corporations and institutions, also perform dhikr in their offices to with a hope that dhikr can stimulate their employees’ hard-work and motivation.
Through his dhikr method, Arifin attempts to increase the piety of his followers, even to those who just experience religiosity transformation or renewal. Within his dhikr recitation, he also inserts rethorical da’wa to call his followers to articulate the dhikr in their daily activities by commiting religious tenets and doing virtues such as can be seen at the formulas “Tujuh Sunnah Harian” (The Seven Daily Prophet’s Traditions) and “Sembilan Karakter Muslim Ideal” (Nine Characters of Ideal Muslims). The Seven Daily Prophet’s Traditions are :Praying At the middle of the night (namely tahajjud), Reciting Quran with its translation, Praying shubuh together in the mosque, Praying in the morning Dhuha, Committing Philantrophy, Keeping the wudhu (a cleaning ritual before prayer), Istighfar (utter Astaghfirullah to ask God’s forgiveness). While the Nine Characters of Ideal Muslims are:

1.     his/her gaze is mercy
2.     his/her thought is husnuzhan (good suspicion)
3.     his/her breath is tasbih (extolling Allah’s perfection)
4.     his/her heart is prayer
5.     his/her talk is dakwah
6.     his/her silent is zikir
7.     his/her hand likes to giving
8.     his/her foot steps are jihad
9.     his/her dream is the syariat Allah

Majelis Az Zikra Activities
Majelis Az Zikra has several names; Majelis Zikir and Knowledge, Majelis Tawashowbil haq Tawashow bisshabri Wa Tawashow bilmarhamah, and Majelis Tarbiyah. Even though the mass dhikr has been begun since 1999 at Al Amru Bittaqwa Mosque Depok, Majelis Az Zikra itself was formally established by Arifin and his companions in 2003.
This Majelis has only social and non-profit oriented programs. For these social programs there are at least nine activities as follows:
1. Dhikr together.
Monthly dhikr together (zikir berjamaah) is performed in Depok and led by Arifin himself, while other dhikr has been led by his companions in all parts of Indonesia. This monthly dhikr attracts thousands of people to come and perform dhikr everyc first Sunday in that month. While Great dhikr (zikir akbar) which hundred thousands people come, usually performed two or three times a year at special moments like Ramadhan and Hijriyah New Year and conducted in great mosques as Istiqlal and At Tiin in Jakarta.
2. Pesantren for the Orphans
At the beginning, this pesantren is allocated for the orphans from formerly conflict areas like Poso and Ambon. Nowadays it is also open for those who come from Jakarta,Depok Bogor, Tangerang and Bekasi (Jadebotabek).
3. Majelis Tsulasa (Tuesday Learning)
Every Tuesday afternoon, there is a discussion session exclusively for the asatidz (teachers) in Az Zikra circles. There are about 15-20 asatidz who are close to Arifin and being in his first circle. After that, at the evening, again there is another learning session which is open for all people. Again it attracts thousands of people to come there.
4. Titian Keluarga Sakinah (TKS)
This institution functions as a bureau to consult about family matters, marriage, and seeking the soul mate. Led by Ustadz Hudanul Sidiq who later well-known as ‘Ustadz of Love”, through TKS, Arifin attempts to prove that the impact of dhikr can be articulated in family matters.

5. Tim Khidmatul Ummah
This institution accomodates those who voluntarily work for the Majelis like providing transportation, sound system, publication, and fundraising during the dhikr.
6. Bukit Az Zikra Muslim Housing in Sentul
Recently, Arifin has put the first stone of the development of Bukit Az Zikra Muslim Housing in Sentul Bogor, a city beside Jakarta. Consists of hundreds hectares land, in this area Arifin will develop housing exclusively for Muslims (especially his followers). Interestingly, within the housing complex, he also will build the pesantren and mosques which funded by Muammar Khaddafi, the president of Libya. Through Arifin’s lobby when he visited Libya, Khaddafi interested in funding those both buildings. The reason behind developing this housing is Arifin’s dreams about a modern residential area where the people like to do prophet Muhammad’s traditions like praying together,dhikr together and many others.14
7. Shubuh Touring
This shubuh touring means praying shubuh together from mosques to mosques by riding hundreds of motor cycles twice a week. At 3.30 o’clock in the morning, hundreds of motor cycles gather in front of Arifin’s house waiting for him. Arifin himself follow and enjoy to ride a motor cycle in this touring. Each riders is equipped with a helmet and jacket in order to be safe from accidents and the early morning wind.
Arifin believes that daily face-to-face personal interactions and informal social networks are active forces in the community and lead to strengthen the norms of reciprocity among Muslims. To get that reciprocity and unity, Muslims can use mosque as the media. Praying together at Mosques, however, can to some extent function as an intermediary institution, in which individual Muslims can communicate and share information about community or public issues.15 The mosque then may contribute to the chances of more contacts, more interpersonal trust, and in turn more reciprocity among Muslims.16


8. Media
Arifin views that mass medias like television, radios, and print medias are very effective for the dakwah or proseltyzing the piety toward public. Therefore, he has a MoU with Televisi Pendidikan Indonesia ( Indonesian Educational Television/TPI) that Majelis Az Zikra is given a time for kuliah shubuh (shubuh lecture) every Saturday morning. Arifin, however, is not “a one man show” person. He just take once a month in that TV agenda, while the rest is given to his companions like Ustadz Muhammad Abdul Syukur, Ustadz Zein Rafik, Ustadz Iwan Zawawi and many other. It is also a kind of training and regeneration for the younger ustadz. In addition of TPI, Arifin is also occasionally invited to other TV stations like SCTV, ANTV, TVRI, TRANSTV, and so forth. Especially in TPI, Arifin also appears in “Rahasia Ilahi” soap opera which takes the stories from a popular Hidayah magazine. Through this soap opera, Arifin delivers his messages to the public about the importance of piety, strengthening the faith, and avoid the sins. Most of the stories of this opera consists of example of both pious and sinner people, as can be seen from some titles like “The Pious Women”, “The Death of a Gambler”, “Impact of Adultery”, and so forth. Arifin also allows the publishing of Azzikra magazine as a main media to deliver his messages. Majelis Az Zikra also publishes the schedule of dhikr regularly at Republika daily newspaper and sometimes the Republika offers itself to be a sponsor of dhikr agendas.
9.Sport Spirituality
Another activity of Majelis Az Zikra is sport. Arifin believes that the healthy physics can make a Muslim becomes perfect in doing worship, dakwah,working and jihad. Therefore he calls his family and companions to do sport together. Among his hobbies are playing badminton and swimming every week. Arifin also calls the head of regional police (Kapolres), the Major of Depok, the chairman of Depok Legislative Board (DPRD) and even non Muslims in his city.
Uniquely, all participants (Muslims) should have wudhu before their playing in order they are still in ‘pure’ condition. Moreover, in the middle of playing badminton, all participants should stop for a while then listening to his or his companions’ short speech (about 5-10 minutes) about Islamic tenets. Then they continue to play again. That’s why Arifin call this as “sport spirituality”.

"Whenever and wherever we are, we should deliver dakwah. That’s my principle"17
While some companies and busniess-oriented institutions like Az Zikra Hajj and Umrah Agent, Az Zikra magazine, ADzikra travel agent, Baitul Maal Wat Tamwil (BMT) Az Zikra, MAPINDA fresh water company and many others, which take benefits from the popular name of Arifin are not owned by Majelis Az Zikra itself. They are owned by individuals who use Az Zikra’s name as their brand market. As a consequence of that name usage, there is a percentage of money that should be given to the Majelis Az Zikra. As admitted by Saifulloh and Ghaffar the money then used to fund the Az Zikra orphan foundation’s operational cost, not for Arifin. Soemthing should be noted here that Arifin does not enjoy those financial benefits.18
This Majelis also develops networks with other Muslim’s organizations such as NU, Muhammadiyah, Front Pembela Islam (Islamic Defence Front), MMI (Indonesian Majelis Mujahidin), Laskar Jihad and many other leading figures in Indonesia. Even the leaders of those “hard-liners” Islamic movements become this Majelis AzZikra’s Dewan Syariah. They are Habib Riziq Syihab, KH Abu Bakar Baasyir, and Ja’far Umar Thalib. Another prominent figures such as Prof.Quraish Shihab,Prof.Ali Mustafa Yakub, Dr.Didin Hafidhuddin, and Prof Ali Yafie also positioned as the member of this Dewan Syariah. This dewan functions as advisory boards for Majelis AzZikra and Arifin himself. Before taking a position or policy, Arifin always consults with them about his steps and problems that he face in running this Majelis.
Arifin and Majelis Azzikra also has warm relationship with the government. This can be seen from the frequency of his Dhikr with Bupati (regents), Law officers, Military oficers, Governors, Ministers and the President which followed by hundred thousands of people. It is recorded that almost 400 kabupaten (regions) in Indonesia have conducted this Dhikr with Arifin and his assistants.
Arifin believes that to reform Indonesia from its illness and backwards, he should approach the elites too since they are political stakeholders and decision makers. He also asserts that through his Majelis he wants to purify the minds and hearts of those elites with a soft and “beautiful” approach, not violence.

“Embrace first…… then hit them”19
Within his dhikr and speeches in those elite circles, Arifin criticizes those elites for practicing corruption, which he attributes to lack of dhikr, an excessive love of material comforts, materialism as opposed to spiritualism. He remains them to be good officials, remaining them about the death, about the sin and reward from Allah, paradise and the hell and many others. Arifin hopes that when those elites hear his messages, to some extent they will change their bad attitudes. That’s why he also supports KPK (Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi, Comission Against Corruption) in fighting the corruption by appearing in the KPK’s public advertorial in television to frighten the corruptors of what will they face in the hereafter.

Criticsm on Arifin’s Dhikr
Obviously, some criticisms also have been posed toward Arifin’s dhikr. Firstly comes from the Salafis party. The salafis accuse him as the agent of bid’ah tradition (literally means innovation. However it has negative meaning in Islamic tradition as the Prophet did not such tradition). They argue that the prophet never taught such dhikr tradition particularly with loud voice dhikr. In response of this accusation, Arifin asked one of his Dewan Syariah, KH Dimyati Badruzzaman, to write a book to counter that salafi’s idea.20 In this book, Dimyati poses many verses of the Quran and Hadits (prophet tradition) to support Arifin’s dhikr. He also argues that Dhikr together is allowed in Islam, and not a mistake.
Another criticsm comes from the Liberal Islam Networks (JIL) party. Hamid Basyaib wrote that the dhikr program in some televisions is something useless, mistake and just an exhibition or entertainment. So, for him, dhikr is not a panacea for the country’s problems as claimed by Arifin and his followers. He also stated that it is better to perform “Indonesia Berpikir (thinking of Indonesia)” than “Indonesia Berdzikir”. He also states that television plays a great role in spreading Arifin’s wrong messages. He also wonders why people can cry in that dhikr together, while for him, the real dhikr should be performed alone and not in that mass as Arifin does.21
The Wahid Institute also asserts that Arifin, as well as other preachers, enjoys the rise of financial matter after he becomes popular. The dakwah in television and mass medias make him really rich. That is why that popular culture should be remained exist. There is a mutual symbiosis between Arifin as a preacher and mass media like television in terms of economic interest. Moreover the WI also accusses that Arifin puts some tarifs to whoever want to invite him.22 When I asked this issue to Saifulllah, Arifin’s personal assistant, he rejects that assumption. He said that Arifin never puts a tarif for his speech and dhikr. If someone or a group wants to invite him, they just simply send the request to the Majelis without any obligation to pay or give some money in advance. Arifin will come if he is invited and never rejects the agenda scheduled for him.

"One day, when Arifin was invited to perform dhikr in a campus in Bogor. He went there by a car accopmpanied by his companions. On the way, a jamaah calls us that the organizer asked each jamaah to pay Rp 5000- each. Arifin then changed his car direction and get back to his home. “Dhikr is dhikr……not to be commercialized”..Arifin said".23
Conclusion
Dhikr Berjamaah (Dhikr Together) as part of Tazkiyat an Nafs (Purifying the Soul) is not something new in Islamic mysticism tradition. It has been popular for long time ago. However, formerly, the dhikr was associated and affiliated with some formal and particular Sufi’s orders (thariqah). If people wants to enjoy the taste of spirituality of dhikr, a membership and procedure of one particular thariqah is undeniable.
Arifin Ilham and Majelis Az Zikra however attempts to be agency of piety among Muslims through popularizing the dhikr as an icon. Dhikr is regarded as the entry point of individual piety. The existence of pious individuals, obviously, will lead to the development of pious society too.
The modern form of message delivering and characters of this Majelis Dhikr is aimed to enable each Muslims to get the piety messages without leaving their identity and modern life style. This also may be regarded as a kind of modern sufi form. It is a nexus between Sufism and piety.

Bibliography

A personal interview with Muhammad Arifin Ilham, June 27, 2007
A personal interview with Saifullah and Abdul Ghaffar, both are Arifin’s personal assistants, June 27, 2007
An interview with Saifulloh, Arifin’s personal assistant, June 23, 2007
Badruzzaman, Ahmad Dimyati, Amaliah Dzikir Taubah Muhammad Arifin Ilham Ditinjau dari Syariat Islam, Yayasan Islam Darus Sholihin, Depok,2002.
Badruzzaman, Ahmad Dimyati, Zikir Berjamaah Sunnah atau Bid’ah (Dhikr together, Sunnah or Innovation), Republika publisher, Jakarta, 2003.
Bakti, Andi Faisal, Majelis Azzikra:New Approach to Dakwah for Civil Society in Indonesia, Mimbar Agama dan Budaya, UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, Vol.23, No.1, 2006.
Berkah Melimpah Bisnis Tausiyah, Suplemen Wahid Institute and Tempo Magazine,first edition, Okt-Nov, 2006
Burhani, Ahmad Najib, Sufisme Kota, Serambi, Jakarta, 2001
Federspiel, Howard M. A Dictionary of Indonesian Islam, Center for International Studies, Ohio University, Athens
Hijrah bersama Muhammad Arifin Ilham, Bukit Az Zikra Muslim Housing Sentul brochure.
Howell, Julia Day , ‘Modernity and Islamic Spirituality in Indonesia’s New Sufi Networks’, paper presented in International Conference on Sufism and the Modern in Islam, Bogor, 4-6 September 2003
Ilham, Muhammad Arifin Renungan-renungan Zikir,Intuisi Press, Depok, 2004
Ilham, Muhammad Arifin, Membentuk Pribadi Berzikir, Intuisi Press, Depok, 2007
Ilham, Muhammad Arifin, Menikmati Shubuh Keliling, Majalah Azzikra, No 31, June 2007
Ilham, Muhammad Arifin, Panduan Zikir & Doa, Intuisi Press-Majelis Az Zikra, Depok, 2005
Majalah Azzikra, vol. May and June 2007.
Mujani, Saiful,  Religious Democrats: Democratic Culture and Muslim Political Participation in Post Suharto Indonesia, Ph.D dissertation, The Ohio State University, Ohio, 2003

**Researcher at Center for the Study of Religion and Culture (CSRC) Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta. He can be reached at: aangdepok@yahoo.com

1 Julia Day Howell , ‘Modernity and Islamic Spirituality in Indonesia’s New Sufi Networks’, paper presented in International Conference on Sufism and the Modern in Islam, Bogor, 4-6 September 2003
2 Arifin even dedicated this name as the name of Al Amru Bittaqwa Mosque and Al Amru Bitaqwa Foundation in Depok which become the headquarters of his daily and Dhikr activities.
3 A personal interview with Muhammad Arifin Ilham, June 27, 2007
4 Sometimes he looks sad and sometimes he smiles while remembering about his “humble” life during those years in those places.
5 Howard M.Federspiel, A Dictionary of Indonesian Islam, Center for International Studies, Ohio University, Athens, p. 295
6 Ahmad Dimyati Badruzzaman, Amaliah Dzikir Taubah Muhammad Arifin Ilham Ditinjau dari Syariat Islam, Yayasan Islam Darus Sholihin, Depok,2002.
7 Muhammad Arifin Ilham, Panduan Zikir & Doa, Intuisi Press-Majelis Az Zikra, Depok, 2005, p.5-6.
8 Muhammad Arifin Ilham, Renungan-renungan Zikir,Intuisi Press, Depok, 2004, p.108-109, see also Muhammad Arifin Ilham, Membentuk Pribadi Berzikir, Intuisi Press, Depok, 2007
9 See Andi Faisal Bakti, Majelis Azzikra:New Approach to Dakwah for Civil Society in Indonesia, Mimbar Agama dan Budaya, UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, Vol.23, No.1, 2006.p.23. see also Muhammad Arifin Ilham, Panduan Zikir & Doa, Intuisi Press, 2005
10 a great Ulama from
Kalimantan who wrote several famous manuscripts and also considered as a great mursyid (teacher) of Qadiriyya-Naqshabandiyya Sufi Order in Kalimantan.
11 A personal interview with Muhammad Arifin Ilham, June 27, 2007
12 Komaruddin Hidayat asserts that there are at least five reasons for modern Muslims to join Sufism, includes to practice dhikr nowadays, firstly, to search for meaningful life, secondly, intellectual exercise and enrichment, then, psychological escape, next is religious justification and lastly, economic interest. See Ahmad Najib Burhani, Sufisme Kota, Serambi,
Jakarta, 2001, p.5-8

13 To see examples of this experience see the testimonies of the Jamaah Azzikra in Majalah Azzikra, vol. May and June 2007.
14 Hijrah bersama Muhammad Arifin Ilham, Bukit Az Zikra Muslim Housing Sentul brochure.
15 Saiful Mujani,  Religious Democrats: Democratic Culture and Muslim Political Participation in Post Suharto Indonesia, Ph.D dissertation, The Ohio State University, Ohio, 2003 p.134
16 See Muhammad Arifin Ilham, Menikmati Shubuh Keliling, Azzikra Magazine, No 31, June 2007. I also did observation on this Shubuh touring by following this practice recently.
17 A personal interview with Muhammad Arifin Ilham, June 27, 2007
18 A personal interview with Saifullah and Abdul Ghaffar, both are Arifin’s personal assistants, June 27, 2007
19 A personal interview with Muhammad Arifin Ilham, June 27, 2007
20 The book entitles Zikir Berjamaah Sunnah atau Bid’ah (Dhikr together, Sunnah or Innovation), Republika publisher, Jakarta, 2003.
21
http://islamlib.com/id/index.php?page=article&id=765 accessed on June 23, 2007
22 Berkah Melimpah Bisnis Tausiyah, Suplemen Wahid Institute and Tempo Magazine, first edition, Okt-Nov, 2006
23 An interview with Saifulloh, Arifin’s personal assistant, June 23, 2007

1 komentar:

  1. yes i forgive you son.. hahaha #Re: Forgive your english

    BalasHapus